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Dr. Jay
College of Arts, Humanities
and Social Sciences
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Argumentation and Critical Thinking Tutorial


The following test asks you to determine if arguments are formally valid or formally invalid. Read each argument, consider its validity, and click on "valid" if it meets the requirements to make it valid, and on "invalid" if it does not.

Each argument is presented as

Major premise

Minor premise


That is important, because sometimes an argument that is invalid becomes valid if what was meant to be the conclusion is used as a premise, or if what was meant to be a major premise is used as a minor premise.

The most common mistake people make is thinking that if an argument comes to a clearly untrue conclusion it must be invalid, and that if it comes to a clearly true conclusion it must be valid. Remember that truth and validity do not necessarily coincide.

This test has 20 questions.

Question #1