References

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Anderson, T., L. Rouke, D.R. Garrison, & W. Archer. (2001). Assessing Teaching Presence in a Computer Conferencing Context. JALN 5(2).

Canadian researchers describe a tool designed to assess teaching presence in a graduate level online environment that uses computer conferencing. According to the authors, teaching presence is defined as “the design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.” The tool was adapted from Garrison, Anderson, and Archer’s model of critical thinking and practical inquiry. Results of a pilot study are presented.

Berge, Z. L. (1995). Facilitating Computer Conferencing: Recommendations From the Field. Educational Technology. 35(1) 22-30. The Role of the Online Instructor/Facilitator (Adobe Reader required).

Author lists the roles and functions online teachers or facilitators should perform for successful learning. An important concept presented in this article is that technology “is secondary to well-designed learning goals and objectives.” The online facilitator can stimulate critical thought in regards to the course material presented through a pedagogical, social, managerial, and technical role.

Chickering, A. W. and Z.F. Gamson. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education (Adobe Reader required). Retrieved March 23, 2012.

Chickering and Gamson present seven different principles based on research, for teachers to promote good teaching and learning for higher education institutions. In addition, areas of support that encourage successful online education are discussed.

Collison, G., et al. (2000). Facilitating online learning: Effective strategies for moderators. Atwood Publishing; Madison, WI.

Authors describe key functions for moderators in the online environment. They emphasize the importance of using an appropriate voice and tone in facilitating online learners.

Duckworth, C. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. Learning Circuits. Retrieved March 23, 2012.

The authors provide 10 tips for online teachers to improve their delivery in online courses. These tips include suggestions for transferring a course from a traditional method of delivery to online.

Hayes, C. The Role of the Mentor in Online Learning (Adobe Reader required). Retrieved October 6, 2006.

Hayes defines the role of mentor for distance learning as more demanding in terms of “developing rapport and instilling trust” in the students. The Open University model from Florida State University is presented with the various phases of developing these key aspects of teaching online.

Headley, Scot. (October/November 2005). Five roles I play in online courses. Innovate: Journal of Online Education Vol. 2, Issue 1. Retrieved October 6, 2006 from (Must register to view, but account is free.)

Headley teaches online courses at George Fox University, Oregon. His philosophy is that "the key to successful teaching and learning is relationships." He describes five roles for online instructors that "promote community."

Hootstein, Ed. (2002) Wearing Four Pairs of Shoes: The Roles of E-Learning Facilitators.

Hootstein describes online facilitators as playing four distinct roles: instructor, social director, program manager, and technical assistant. Clearly defining these roles as well as making teachers aware of the many “shoes” they wear, will aid teachers in developing quality online courses.

Mandernach, B. J., E. Donnelli, A. Daily, M. Shulte. (2005). A Faculty Evaluation Model for Online Instructors: Mentoring and Evaluation in the Online Classroom. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 8(3). Retrieved October 10, 2006.

Four researchers present the Park University Instructor Online Evaluation System. Included in the article are examples of tools used including Course Preterm Review, Online Instructor Evaluation, Summative Evaluation, and Instructor Self Review forms.

Palloff, R. and Pratt, K. (1999). Building learning communities in cyberspace. San Francisco. Jossey-Bass Inc.

Authors define the need for community to be established in the online classroom. Personal interaction is described as a vital component for successful completion of online learning.

Schwier, R. A. (2002). Shaping the Metaphor of Community in Online Learning Environments (Adobe Reader required). Retrieved October 6, 2006.

The author supports the importance of developing online learning communities to enhance learning. Schwier describes seven important elements of communities.

What Makes a Successful Online Facilitator? Illinois Online Network.

Basic criteria is presented for developing and maintaining a quality online program. Seven criteria are described that focus on the facilitator’s role. Student expectations are also presented.

The Five P's of Effective Online Instruction. University of Washington Instructor's Handbook.

This article presents five guidelines to follow for successful teaching online. Each guideline, prompt, personal, positive, practical, and patient, is described in detail as it improves communication between students and teachers in an online environment.

Additional Resources

Matthews, R., C. Bunn, K. Gustafson, D. Megill, K. O'Connor. (1997). Guidelines for Good Practice: Technology Mediated Instruction (Adobe Reader required). The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. Retrieved October 16, 2006. (PDF - Adobe Reader required)

Prestera, G. and L. Moller. (2001). Exploiting Opportunities for Knowledge Building in Asynchronous Distance Learning Environments (Adobe Reader required). Proceedings from the Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference. Retrieved October 16, 2006. (PDF - Adobe Reader required)

Shank, P. (2004). Competencies for Online Instructors. Learning Peaks, LLC. Retrieved October 16, 2006.

Tobin, T. J. (2004). Best Practices for Administrative Evaluation of Online Faculty. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 7(2). Retrieved October 10, 2006.

Yang, Y. (2005). Preparing Instructors for Quality Online Instruction. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 8(1). Retrieved October 10, 2006.